The Paris Agreement[3] is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the mitigation, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The wording of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. [4] [5] By February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC had signed the agreement and 189 had become parties to the agreement. [1] Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those in other international agreements. Scientists have warned that the deal is not enough to prevent catastrophic global warming, as countries` commitments to reduce carbon emissions will not be enough to meet temperature targets. Other criticisms relate to the agreement`s ability to cope with losses associated with climate change in the most vulnerable countries such as most African countries, many south Asian countries, and several south and central American countries. Protection process After 2020, a new climate agreement is needed. It was adopted at the Paris COP in 2015 under the name of the “Paris Agreement”, which for the first time contained a concrete objective to limit global warming well below 2°C above the pre-industrial level of 1750. Ratified countries set their own reduction targets, with a review and strengthening of climate protection efforts taking place every 5 years. In October 2016, the required number of at least 55 ratified countries responsible for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions was reached, allowing the agreement to enter into force.

The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has been extended to 2012. This year, delegates at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (excluding some developed countries that had withdrawn). They also reaffirmed their 2011 commitment at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, to create a new comprehensive climate agreement by 2015 that would commit all major emitters not included in the Kyoto Protocol – such as China, India and the United States – to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – which was to become the Paris Agreement – is expected to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris Agreement entered into force earlier than planned in November 2016. . .

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