Ambitious and targetedThe focus on innovation was to make the agreement ambitious and focused. In this regard, key decision-makers using science and a sense of urgency have focused on key issues of the need for rapid reduction for all countries. The 21st Conference of the Parties or the CoP21 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) ended with the agreement of the 195 member countries of the world for the “Paris Agreement” after a long meeting held in Le Bourget, Paris, from 29 November to 11 December 2015. When the gift fell during the last and long session of CoP21, all the countries and citizens of the world breathed. Indeed, CoP21 is part of two major failures: the Kyoto Protocol (PC) and the CoP15 in Copenhagen in 2009, on which the parties concerned have failed to agree. This has increased the risk of a rapid increase in climate change, as evidenced by the acceleration of extreme weather events around the world. In 1997, the KP agreed on a 5% reduction in greenhouse gases (GHGs) with the 1990 reference value by industrialized countries. Unfortunately, the KP also failed because of a total failure since, under the leadership of the United States, several other major emitters, including Russia, Canada, Japan and Australia, left the KP, causing the collapse of the only global agreement that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Since the early introduction of the KP, the three widely-announced Kyoto instruments and the emergence of a carbon market have resulted in a drastic and catastrophic collapse. Monitoring the Paris AgreementThe Paris Agreement will be transformed into a series of activities in many areas, such as finance, climate change, adaptation, capacity building, disaster management, disaster management, governance, planning and evaluation monitoring, agriculture and food, energy, water, forestry, infrastructure, health, fisheries, ecosystem services , transport, land, local government, human rights, the integration of women and men, regional cooperation, to name a few. It will need a huge amount of expertise, as well as a specific institution and specific human resources. Many of these themes will be long-term activities (5-15 years and older), while some short-term activities (1 to 2 years) could follow through on the Paris Agreement. So there was a lot of skepticism about whether Paris would reach an agreement.

If there is no agreement in Paris, the planet is expected to experience temperatures above 3 degrees Celsius by 2100. This would challenge human planetary civilizations, their food, water and subsistence papers, and increase the likelihood of a drastic reduction in the number of species and increased acidification of the oceans. All countries would experience a dramatic increase in extreme environmental conditions and would also threaten poverty-fighting opportunities and the new SDGs. As a result, global risks to the economy, development and the environment were too high. The agreement also included, in other areas, issues related to the fight against poverty, universal access to sustainable energy for developing countries and increased participation by all partners. The agreement also included all party and party stakeholders, with texts such as “the accession agreement and the promotion of regional and international cooperation, to mobilize stronger and more ambitious measures for climate change from all parties and stakeholders, including civil society, the private sector, financial institutions, cities and other sub-national authorities. local communities and indigenous peoples.” Heads of State and Government Upstream This is the first time that all the major heads of state or government are at the forefront at the beginning of the conference. They presented their positive expectations and high hopes for the agreement and the need for success. This had created an atmosphere of positive results.

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